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Minyak bulus halal haram forex forex patterns and probabilities book

Minyak bulus halal haram forex

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But much of this requires the participation and commitment of local SME producers, who are predominantly non-Muslims, and who are also facing numerous issues and challenges. MM: It is an interesting development. We see that when we have a certain advantage, certification for example; and then they look at ASEAN with a population of million people, plus our proximity to China and India and our relationship with OIC countries particularly the GCC , they would see Malaysia is a good place to invest in.

For companies from Europe or Japan who want to get onto the Halal bandwagon but may not have the capacity to get local certification, one way of course is to try and get Halal certification from Malaysia, which from our standpoint, does not really benefit us. So the next best thing for them, and works for us too, is to literally set it up here, joint venture perhaps with a local partner in terms of sourcing of materials, or setting up a whole plant, basically doing pretty much what they do from wherever they come from, but with the extra element of Halal.

So they have decided that Malaysia was to be their Halal production hub. What about initiatives to enhance the competitiveness of local Halal SMEs and open up access to penetrate the global Halal markets? MM: Yes, I think this is extremely important as Malaysia has been in the forefront of making standards. We do a lot of research, training, and so on, but translating that into industry, into products; I think it is a well known fact there are many other countries that excel in that far better than we do.

This is not something that we can help, because perhaps these other countries have so long been in the business of producing food. When we create a new market, it is easier for these established players to translate into Halal, rather than in our case, we have to literally start from scratch. I believe we have been successful in creating awareness. We also help SMEs to understand that the market demand for Halal is important and that it opens up a specific market potential.

Since we are now very serious about penetrating the GCC market, this presents an opportunity for them to supply products to that very discerning and lucrative market. On developing our local industries into Halal industries; we help them in terms of packaging and branding as well as the criteria needed to comply with the export market. We also do a lot of business match-making, which usually benefits them directly.

Its one thing to bring our products overseas and promote them there, but it is even more effective if buyers from all over the world are all here to see the kinds of products we are offering and take it from there. How about ensuring that the producers, both Muslims and non-Muslims, thoroughly understand the intrinsic meanings of Halal? MM: I think it is much easier to create awareness and to make them see that there is a ready market for a product that meets the demand for Halal market.

So from that standpoint, they see there is demand, and people are willing to pay good money, in fact there is potential of exports to Muslim and non-Muslim countries, and at a premium. The way I see it, a product which bears. So the next best thing for them companies from Europe or Japan , and works for us too, is to literally set it up here, joint venture perhaps with a local partner in terms of sourcing of materials, or setting up a whole plant, basically doing pretty much what they do from wherever they come from, but with the extra element of Halal.

Two that I find interesting is hospitality and tourism, and I think we could probably find a niche for Halal-related tourism. The end customer also wants to know if the whole logistics chain is also maintaining the Halal integrity of the product.

If prior to this, Halal food may have travelled in freezers, together with non-Halal foods, then there is still that issue whether or not the product is still Halal. I think the Malaysian logistics companies are handling that matter very well. We now have end-to-end Halal logistics services. For Muslim producers, of course, we have that added incentive, in the akhirat hereafter ; basically, it is non-tangible, not monetary of course, but a lot bigger than that.

So, I think the Halal business is one of the very few businesses whereby someone can actually make a profit, but also earn some pahala reward , for the Afterlife. In terms of budget, how much has the federal government allocated for the development of the Halal sector in Malaysia as a whole and under MITI specifically? What are the projects that we can expect to be rolled out within the foreseeable future for the Malaysian Halal sector? We see that agencies within MITI have to collaborate and make use some of their allocations for similar purpose, so that way we get to share the burden and the responsibility, to help HDC meet its KPIs key performance indicators.

I think that way we get a better bang for each buck that we spend. Projects that we have in progress… as you well know, we are involved in the World Halal Research Summit. It is in the fourth year now and it has been very successful. It is a two-day event and it is being held in conjunction with the Malaysia Halal Week.

This event is interesting because it is specifically focused on research. We also have trade missions that are specific to Halal. One is to Pakistan, and another to Guangzhou in China, focusing specifically on Halal products and services.

You might ask why Guangzhou, because China also has quite a sizeable Muslim population, perhaps not specifically in Guangzhou, but in Ningxia and Xinjiang, two provinces that has a majority or a high percentage of Muslims.

We chose Guangzhou because they have been producing their own Halal products, and their own demand for Halal products from the world and from Malaysia is also very high. We have a Data Warehousing project, to collate the latest data and statistics of the Halal industry. I think it is important and timely that we have this Data Warehousing project.

We also have outreach programmes to enhance the knowledge and awareness on Halal. The placement of iKiosk in strategic places where people can get information about what product is Halal, and so on. Response from these small outreach programmes has been very good. Halal hospitality and Halal logistics were the two identified. Could you elaborate on these please?

MM: Two that I find interesting is hospitality and tourism, and I think we could probably find a niche for Halal-related tourism. For now, already tourists from Muslim countries travel to Malaysia because they feel comfortable, because there are no issues on food and the likes, but I think we could go even further than that. They could experience Malaysia from all things that are Halal. From a tourism aspect, there are many things that can be developed further to enhance this market and the attractiveness of Malaysia as a Halal tourism destination.

When we go with a Halal park, the ecosystem is an environment conducive towards the production of Halal products, and services for that matter — everything from water, the materials that come in, how they are handled, and so on. If livestock is involved, you want to make sure that that too is managed to be Shariah-compliant. The up-and-coming services sector is logistics. I think there are a number that have become quite aware that it is not enough to just produce products that are Halal.

At the government level, we want to promote this. But when we talk about it and explain to them, they start thinking that this is something we need, and then the best thing is the fact that people are willing to pay premium for that service. From that standpoint, the government still want to create awareness. As you can imagine, Abu Dhabi is the heart of the GCC, and they are looking at what Malaysia has in terms of services, most particularly in the Halal sector and I think that too is a great avenue to promote our capabilities.

On the setting up of numerous Halal parks, how viable is the general plan and how do you envision to attract investors to set up businesses in these Halal parks, and in which sectors, what is the targeted investment amount and what sort of incentives can they expect?

MM: Before we had the Multimedia Super Corridor MSC , there were Acts passed in the Parliament that provide for bills of guarantee, that give incentives for companies involved in ICT, to find a place they could do business rather cheaply and get all the resources they need to succeed in that particular sector.

We are doing the same for Halal. When we talk about Halal parks, it is the whole ecosystem that is involved. Sometimes, we have a company that produces bread, and within the. So it is not conducive, because when we talk about Halal, it is also about hygiene and cleanliness.

From that standpoint, once you have a certain area gazetted for a Halal park, we hope to have more investors come in and make use of that. At this moment, I must admit that the various different areas of Halal parks sometimes have their own way of approaching this.

There are certain standards, but there are also certain innovations and differences in each of them. From our point of view, so long as they meet a certain minimum standard, which are already very high, they would qualify to be termed as a Halal park. As at the end of , there are eight Halal parks altogether in various locations throughout the country, which are already in operations.

Sectors that we are targeting to enhance economic contribution from Halal industries with export-led growth and increasing self sufficiency, are the premium or specialty Halal processed food industry; not just the basic stuff but products that fetch a premium.

Also Halal ingredients, as some of our neighbouring countries are producing Halal food, but they are in dire need for Halal ingredients. So perhaps this is something we could look into as mass production. I see that as a lucrative business actually.

Other sectors include cosmetics, personal care products and pharmaceuticals, which are growing very rapidly but has a lot more room to grow; and also in livestock. So these are the areas that. In order for this to happen, the government will, of course, look into incentives to attract these companies to invest, not just in the specific locations but also specific sectors that I mentioned earlier.

It has been working and people are becoming a lot more interested. One of the oft-cited issues is the lack of a concerted effort between the federal and state governments to assist in preparing local SME producers to be Halal-certified. Since a number of producers are still operating in their own backyard, does MITI have plans to relocate and upgrade these cottage producers? Whilst we create awareness and help these SMEs and cottage industries to focus on Halal, we of course have to make them understand that in most cases, the location of their production plays a critical role, whether their product can be deemed as per cent Halal or not.

We try to encourage that these producers move into the designated Halal areas, that is one thing. I think is an ongoing effort in each agency under MITI, it is a concerted effort with the state governments, and we gather all our capacities and capabilities to create more business opportunities and basically attract these SMEs to comply with those requirements. It grows very substantially every year.

Most importantly is the fact that we organise business matching sessions. This is when they get to meet the buyers and cut deals. I think more of that needs to be done. HDC is also working with JAKIM to increase Halal awareness, through various outreach programmes, and this include visits to selected potential Halal SMEs to provide them with advisory services, in addition to our ongoing Halal-related seminars, trainings and consultancies.

What are your vision and aspirations for the local SME sector within the Halal sector? How do you foresee the burgeoning global Halal industry help improve their current standings and that of Malaysia? When a market seems saturated, the next best thing to do is to create a new market. The Halal industry is exactly that. We may be a bit behind as compared with other producers, but when we started the Halal industry, of course we started very small, but now it has really grown to become an industry that is attracting a lot of players including those who never even considered it, because they thought there was never any need.

One example is vaccines. For such a long time we know that proteins used in the manufacturing of vaccines are non-Halal, and the conventional thinking was, since there is no alternative, even the religion allows it. So that has been the fatwa.

But what if we were to create an alternative? Then it is beholden on us, to use the Halal alternative instead of the non-Halal one. Suddenly, the pharmaceutical industry realise that this is a captured market. It is almost by decree, by Divine tenet, that if you have a Halal version, you have no choice but to use that. I think this is the best thing that has ever happened to SMEs! We are now seeing SMEs exporting to GCC, when prior to this they would have no chance of doing so because they would have to compete with the Europeans and the rest.

Because of the Malaysian Halal logo, they are now seen at par with the best of them. So I think our approach and our focus right now is to get more SMEs to be involved in this industry, and we will help them to the best of our abilities. It is clear that this market is growing and maturing.

There are some key questions for marketers in formulating an effective American Muslim marketing strategy. Almost half of the American Muslims are indigenous and the recent immigrant populations are already into their second or third generations. As a result, many consumer behaviour aspects are reflective of the general American consumption patterns. From buying cell phones to drinking soft drinks, the American part of their identity prevails.

However, a variety of Muslim market-specific product categories and levels of customisation opportunities do exist. In August, the natural grocery giant Whole Foods began selling its first nationally distributed Halal food product — frozen Indian entrees called Saffron Road. In the late nineties, much was written about the Hispanic market in the US, but it was lost in the mainstream media without any action until early At this time, the ethnic market started to reach a sizable opportunity for companies to target, and today this market stands at USD1.

Broadly, this consumer landscape can be broken down into two categories. First, the consumer products and services that a Muslim household spends on regardless, that are not unique for Muslim consumers alone; and second, the products and services specific to the unique Muslim consumer needs.

The first category is where marketing focus is needed on custom communication, targeted media reach and building loyalty. The second is where customised Muslim products, services or dedicated business lines are developed. In recent years we have seen a mainstream company like Best Buy Inc. In August, the natural grocery giant, Whole Foods, began selling its first nationally distributed Halal food product — frozen Indian entrees called Saffron Road.

American Muslim entrepreneurs have also launched many companies targeting the local Muslim consumers. The American Muslim market today has a fast growing diverse set of media and forums that enable access to it. From fast growing online networks such as Zabihah.

Muslims comprise one of the fastest growing consumer markets in the world and, hence, represent a major growth opportunity for businesses around the world. Kearney A global management consulting firm. Ogilvy Noor estimated that there are as many as 8 million Muslims in the U.

They are also well educated - From food to fashion to finance, buying Muslim is a big opportunity and consumer brands in the U. The American Muslim Consumer Conference AMCC provides the only platform for industry professionals to examine this potent market sector, and explore its rich potential. More info: americanmuslimconsumer. The increased support and buzz around this emerging consumer segment is good for the Muslim community, brands seeking to court them and the US economy.

And as the outlook for significant top-line growth and overall economic recovery still looks gloomy in many sectors, look for more brands, mainstream and Muslim-owned, and to begin and make efforts to gain the attention and loyalty of a significantly important and underserved demographic in the marketplace — the American Muslim consumer.

Halal sausages first appeared in shops near the mosques in the 90s. Ethnic Muslims in Russia only knew about the word Halal 30 years ago, and for most it meant simply just meat permitted by Islam. Most supermarkets in Russia today have special sections where you can find Halal products. Russia is becoming an active importer and exporter of Halal goods and services. Russian consumers are attracted to Halal products for reasons similar to others around the world: quality and safety.

Halal products are in great demand among the buyers of different religions — everyone who cares about health. In Russia, Halal has become not only a preference, but a way of life for many Russian Muslims. More than sixty companies from Russia, Belarus, Palestine, UAE and Indonesia presented their range of foods, cosmetics and perfumes, clothes and books,.

A wide range of services was presented by travel operators and financial institutions. Thousands of residents and guests, businessmen and consumers visited the exhibition. During the three-day exhibition period, a significant number of agreements were signed on trade development, and on the supply of goods to new markets.

Throughout the exhibition, a range of issues were discussed, including the development of a single global standard for Halal production, training of professional personnel for the Halal industry and so on. The main outcome of the first exhibition is the common opinion of specialists and. It is a centralized religious organization uniting on a voluntary basis religious Muslim associations — Religious boards of Muslims, Muhtasibats and other kinds of religious Muslim associations within the territory of the Russian Federation.

The Council carries out its activity on the basis of the Holy Writ of Muslims, the Koran, and the Muslim law, the Sharia, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the legislations of the Russian Federation, Federal Law and the Charter on freedom of conscience and religious associations.

Halal gmail. An excellent discount system offered by the organizers which depended on the period of payment and the booth size allows the exhibitors and participants to optimize their experiences. In , the Exhibition will extend its timeframes and will last for 4 days including two weekend days — a unique opportunity for exhibiting companies to present their products and services to even larger number of prospective customers. The Organizing committee of the Exhibition invites companies representing halal-industry and having experience in running sharia-compliant businesses, to participate at Moscow Halal Expo Repeat exhibitors and those who make payment before December 31, , may expect a smart system of discounts.

Russia is the biggest country in the world with total area 6,, sq. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast.

Due to its sheer size, Russia is also a country with the longest transportation route in the world. The total length for commonlyused railway tracks exceeds 53, miles, and over , miles of paved roads. Russia was, in fact, bigger just a few decades ago. The USSR comprised of 15 communist republics which existed from until its dissolution in After the dissolution of USSR, a new state based on the capitalist market economy was created.

It also changed from adopting a communist system to a federal-semi-presidential republic where human rights form the basic underlying value. Demographics The Russian Federation comprises of 83 federal subjects. They are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. The country has about ethnic groups, who speak some languages. The second largest group after Russians is Tatar numbering some 5. Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country, with approximately million Russians considering themselves as Russian Orthodox Christians.

The last population census in puts the Muslim population in Russia to approximately million people. There is a large Muslim presence in the Volga-Ural region and most of the population in North Caucasus of Russian Federation is Muslims, with a large number of Tatar Muslims living in Siberia and other.

Figure 1 shows the distribution of Muslim population in Russia. The national population census also shows a general decrease in the total number of Russians. On the flip side however, it also shows an increase in the number of Muslims in Russia. Transportation Due to its sheer size, Russia is also a country with the longest transportation route in the world.

The total length for commonly-used railway tracks exceeds 53, miles, and over , miles of paved roads. The rapid development of transportation industry, including railroads, automobile and marine infrastructures as well as warehousing, has also resulted in an increased in development for local logistics industry. Figures 2, 3 and 4 respectively show the dynamics of logistics development in Russia with predictions up to Benefits from developing Halal Logistics In addition to improving the integration between producers of Halal products with the general Muslim society in Russia, the development of Halal logistics will also: allow for increase in the level of production and consumption of Halal in Russia; provide truthful information about the state of various Muslim communities in Russia; help create a consolidated Zakat treasury in Russia, which will be distributed to every local Muslims who qualify; spread the implementation of Halal standards to all sectors of business in Russia; and unite the local Muslim ummah.

Figure 1: Muslim population in Russia Halal market development in Russia The development of Halal logistics in Russia would depend largely from the growth of the local Halal market, and the growth of the local Halal market has a direct correlation to the number of practicing Muslims in Russia, as only practicing believers would actively seek Halal food or products. Note also the increasing number of practicing Muslims in Russia within the past 15 years.

There is a large Muslim presence in the Volga-Ural region and most of the population in North Caucasus of Russian Federation is Muslims, with a large number of Tatar Muslims living in Siberia and other regions. This increasing trend is causing a demand boom for Halal food and consumer products.

Many companies have also begun producing products targeted for the Halal market segment, with many have increased their production rate to meet with the increasing consumer demand for Halal. Another interesting development is the fact that this demand is not merely coming from the Muslims themselves. This was probably. Prospects of Halal Logistics development in Russia Another important point that can be derived from fig. It is also noted that, in practically every Russian city, there exist at least one mosque surrounded by a Muslim community.

Four main issues can therefore be summed up from this, including the fact that:. In , the Linova-Trade company launched a new Halal-hub in Kazan. The area is approximately 4, sq ft, with an extendable area of up to 10, sq ft. The hub is situated in the middle of Russia, with a distinct possibility that the high cost to transport end products is reflected in the final price to consumers.

Another possible alternative for a Halal hub in Russia could be near the seaport of Novorossiysk or the seaport of Saint-Petersburg. However, these ports are located in non-Muslim majority states, what makes the function and control of end-to-end Halal production and shipment even more complicated. However, Halal terminals can. The United Information Logistics Centre will perform the following tasks schematically as shown in fig.

Halal standards Unfortunately, there is no one recognized standard for the Russian Halal market. Non-Muslim companies currently are allowed to produce Halal products, but to increase production capacity, the slaughter of non Halal animals are often done within the same premise. As a result, non Halal meat such as pork was often discovered in many Halal products produced by non-Muslims companies in Russia, adding to further distrust of Muslims to non Muslim producers.

The main rationale for this labeling is so that the majority of consumers, Muslims or otherwise, can make an informed choice about the company which produces the said product. In addition, consumers are able to identify the companies that produce Halal products entirely or those that does both Halal and non Halal products within the same production facility.

Statistically, the total Muslim population in India had increased by Indian Muslims command a 15 per cent share in total consumer market according to their population but keeping the constraint of their economic situation, it is assumed that they command only a 10 per cent share within the overall market.

According to a report by the Indian government, population growth in India is likely to continue for some time but will eventually cease and possibly decline for all communities, including Muslims, as the ongoing process of demographic transition progresses further. Most of the Muslim households in India are within the middle level expenditure background. Comparative to the rural areas, Indian Muslims living in urban areas have better economic conditions but the mass population still lives in rural areas.

Wealth Distribution Muslims population resides in all states and districts of India. To market Halal products in India, identification of Muslim populated states and districts is essential. In , of the million Muslims in India, 31 million, or 22 per cent, lived in one single state, i. Uttar Pradesh. The majority of the Muslim populations in India are in these four states.

In micro level planning of any product, districts have the pivotal role in administrative division of India. The majority of Indian Muslims 64 per cent lives in rural areas due to preference to agriculture as their main source of income while only 34 per cent of the population prefers to live in urban areas. Despite this however, the urbanization trend among Muslims remains relatively high in comparison to other communities.

Comparison of annual per capita expenditure for Indian Muslims living in urban vs rural areas Year Ratio between male and female is quite even among Indian Muslims with Share of youths and children are also relatively higher among Muslims, but literacy rate is lower in comparison to overall population, with only four per cent graduated college while approximately 40 per cent are illiterate as per the census report. In terms of work preference, most Indian Muslim workers are self employed in agriculture and trade-related occupations and very few opt for the services sector.

Percentage of regular salaried worker among Muslims is also less in comparison to other communities. Traditional cottage and handicraft industries like the brass industry in Moradabad, or the bangle-making industry in Ferozabad and carpet industry in Badohi are mostly owned by Indian Muslims.

Economic Prosperity India has achieved a higher economic growth in recent years and it achieved a nine per cent growth rate for the financial year Consistent increase in per capita income has resulted in a growing middle income segment of the population and holds a higher purchasing power. After the liberalization of the Indian economy in , per capita income has been increased from Rs. A larger middle income group ultimately widens the consumer market in India.

It has now becomes a lucrative market for investors in the business of durable goods, processed foods and beverages, real estates, financing, textile and travel. Competition between the companies has given greater choices to consumers among for fresh new styles of products and services.

Despite this however, the Indian Muslim population remains relatively untapped due to their preference to use only Halal certified products. This should appeal to potential investors as India is home to more than 10 per cent of the global Muslim population, the third largest Muslim community after Indonesia and Pakistan. There are more than million Muslims in India having approximately 15 per cent of total population. Twenty districts have more than 50 per cent Muslim population while 68 districts having more than 25 per cent share in total population.

Halal Meat Hub In addition to the domestic market, India is also thriving hub for the export of meat and processed products to other Muslim countries. Larger share of younger Muslim population indicate the potential of modern Halal foodstuffs and other related segments. It is worth noting that the introduction of a Halal logo to conventional products may not work for most Indian Muslims, as it may be perceived as a weak attempt to entice them after being left out due to their religious limitations.

Immense potential exists for Halal products within the processed food segments, as well as drinks and beverages and other consumer products where there exist high levels of ambiguity within the method of manufacturing and mixing of Haram not Halal ingredients.

The absence of clarity about Haram or Halal prevents the Muslim consumers to use the processed products. A significant number of Indian Muslim consumers would also be inclined by the adoption and use of Halal methods and materials within the manufacturing of processed products, in addition to a proper labeling of Halal certification details on their products. In fact, the Muslim market is very unique in the sense that it is very fragmented, and the only way to address it as one segment is through digital channels.

How can Social Media help strengthen the network of Halal-certified manufacturers and service providers across the globe? Do we need to create a new platform specific to the needs of Muslim consumers worldwide or should we just integrate that new requirement with existing apps such as Facebook, Twitter or Foursquare? Regardless of where or how Muslim companies and consumers interact, the fact is, this interaction is bound to happen sooner or later and the companies who do it sooner have a better chance of building loyalty and good will among consumers.

Before you started Muxlim, what were your initial and current impressions of using social media for businesses? Has it seen much progression today as it was five years ago? This naturally makes digital channels critical for any business targeting Muslims, whether to conduct market research, or to reach out to potential customers.

Having developed a Muslim-centric social interaction platform yourself, how do you see Social Networking can help globalise a local SME? What are the challenges that can be expected? What is the real value of social media today, in terms of societal development? Has it changed the behaviour of the consumers as we know it? In what way? It is not easier than ever to both support as well as criticize a brand or product, and therefore brands and.

MUHAMED: The question of establishing a standalone social platform for Muslim manufacturers and service providers will be resolved by the market itself. If the needs of this segment are not met by the generic services, then certainly one such platform will emerge. Digital communication is much more intimate than traditional media, so consumers will only be drawn to content that is contextually, culturally and linguistically relevant to them.

Critics say returns on online advertising investments are not measurable. Has this changed the advertising and communications industry in any way you think? With time, it will become clear that social media needs to be evaluated based on a set of unique metrics, and the ROI will be measured much better. This is a metric that only large companies are able to use in traditional media, but now it is accessible to even small and medium sized companies.

Digital has levelled the playing field in terms of consumer interaction, and you no longer need big budgets to achieve big results. It is said that Social Media can also make ambassadors out of the employees; but they can also become liabilities to the business. How involved should a business be when it comes to Social Media?

This enables the brand to be immersed within consumers, thus gaining all the benefits of social media, while minimizing the risk and investment into such activities. Instead of brands spending a lot of time and money understanding a very complex consumer landscape, they can let an experienced partner handle this on their behalf.

Why do you think English should be the first choice in building brand affinity? Do you have plans to offer Muxlim in other languages? Why or why not. English is clearly the language of choice when you are trying to build a global community, and this is the vision Muxlim continues to have in the foreseeable future. However, our platform technically supports all languages, but users generate the majority of the content in English. Usually an experienced partner can help brands navigate through the channels of having an online presence.

The most important point is for brands to. This will over time generate goodwill and brand recognition among consumers. Also, allowing consumers to shape the direction of future interaction is also a good strategy that gives consumers a feel that they are important and are being listened to by the brand.

Will this pave the way for other innovations, e. I believe using mobile technologies by brands has not reached the main stream yet, in the sense that most Fortune companies do not have a mobile strategy. Also, many of them do not have a multicultural strategy. You will see both of these approaches gaining momentum over the coming years. What are your hopes and expectations of the future Social Media within the next five years?

What do you think will become of traditional forms of media? Advertising will not only become wider, but also smarter. You will see brands interacting in many faces like multicultural and mediums like mobile.

Traditional media will most likely not be wiped over the next 5 years, but with time it will evolve into a secondary medium, and will be mainly used by certain industries where wide broadcasting is more effective like FMCG. For smaller to medium brands, digital will be the primary communication platform with consumers. Over the decade, every business from brick-and-mortar to e-commerce will rely on digital techniques to drive commercial growth.

This could happen by means of deeper consumer insight, better advertising targeting or both. Islamic finance has certainly undergone an explosive growth within the last decade. It upholds the principles of integrity, transparency, risk and profit sharing, fairness, and good corporate governance. Each transaction is supported by underlying assets and ensures a more equitable distribution of wealth.

Future opportunities may no longer come from traditional captive clientele. Instead, Islamic financial institutions urgently need to upgrade their business models to tap mainstream segments. Banks and financial institutions that comply with Shariah principles showed impressive resilience during the financial crisis that hit world economy at the end of , knocking out dozens of conventional banks, particularly in the United States. The Islamic financial system emerged more or less unscathed from the global financial crisis, mainly due to its strict prohibition of investments in risky instruments like toxic assets and derivatives, which have adversely affected their conventional competitors.

The Islamic financial system has proven to be the least affected by the fallout of the global crisis, thanks largely to its strict management of financial instruments, and its focus on financing real operations and keeping away from speculation. This encouraged even countries with Muslim minorities, such as Britain, Germany, the United States and France, to add Islamic banks to their conventional banking industry. The international financial adviser expects the industry to surge In comparison, growth in conventional finance is forecasted to grow 6.

Other financial forecasts are more conservative. The industry is expected to continue to show resilience in the wake of challenging economic scenarios. After witnessing growth levels in excess of 20 per cent per annum for the past several years, global Islamic finance finally came back down to earth when it came under tremendous pressure in Effectiveness of existing Shariah governance framework, as well as synthetic product structures commonly in use, are especially under discussion.

Ashar Nazim adds that decision makers at Islamic financial institutions need state-of-the-art research and analytical tools to assist in making informed decisions on the future growth trajectory of their businesses. Implications of Shariah rulings on governance, product structures and markets need to be appropriately incorporated at the planning phase itself. This was the key message for the industry during The opportunity is for global fund managers as well as for consolidation within the industry.

The country began making significant efforts to develop Islamic finance ahead of other countries. The first Islamic bank for example, was established in Malaysia in Back in the s, when many countries were still unaware of the existence of Islamic finance, Malaysia was already establishing the infrastructure necessary for Islamic finance including a comprehensive legal system and regulations and was putting in place the Shariah framework necessary to ensure an efficient and progressive Islamic financial system, operating in parallel with the conventional financial system.

It is highly likely that Malaysia will continue to be the centre of Islamic finance especially in Asia Pacific, not only because the majority of its population is Muslim and the fact that it has a large number of Islamic financial institutions, but also because the Malaysian government has ensured that the appropriate regulatory and taxation framework is in place to further encourage Islamic financial transactions.

Development of the framework mostly reflects concerns over the trillion dollar Islamic investment sector. Estimated to be in equivalent of about 5 per cent of the worldwide investment industry, development within the sector is currently stalling. Currently, Malaysia leads the world in sukuk issuances, follow by Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Bahrain. The association also put the outstanding amount for government sukuks as of February 16, at RM The key differential being that the profit made on the investment is generated from the returns from an underlying asset, project or venture rather than being a simple debt paper.

The sukuk market has been a primary area of growth, providing an avenue for the short and medium-term placement of funds by investors. This development has been fuelled not only by the desire of institutions to raise funds in a Shariah-compliant manner, but also by investor de-. Sukuk issuances consist of entitlement to certain rights relating to assets, including some degree of asset ownership. The Islamic finance sector prohibits banking structures that are vague or ambiguous to avoid exploitation - a rule which some market watchers argue shuts out the use of common hedging instruments such as currency and interest rate swaps and futures contracts.

The guidelines could eventually help plug a yawning gap within an industry that has struggled to develop proper hedging tools that do not resemble betting instruments - a major handicap that can expose Islamic banks to excessive swings in currency and interest rate movements. We have to define clearly what is hedging. But some Islamic experts argue that derivatives are allowed as long as they are used to deal with currency and rate fluctuations and not for punting.

The guidelines would also tackle legal and Shariah issues arising from the popular practice of using the waad promise and tawarruq concepts to structure Islamic derivatives. At this transformation stage, it is expected that Islamic finance will face enormous challenges in various areas and aspects. In order to ensure Islamic finance will continue to progress and sustain, what it really needs are a strong market penetration, active government backing, appropriate regulatory frameworks, sound corporate governance and integrated cooperation from all stakeholders.

To ensure that financial institutions will be successful in taking their Islamic-based products and services abroad, it is equally important that they implement comprehensive training for their employees. Only through training can banks be able to build a well-educated workforce that is not only familiar with Shariah-compliant banking products and services but are also prepared to communicate them effectively to the customers.

It is also important for employees to become familiar with the appropriate laws and regulations that are specific to each country. Despite this however, finding people who are both Islamic scholars and have a deep understanding of financial tools and how they operate is proving to be one of the most difficult problems to overcome, which often leads to the confusion over different instruments.

With the number of Islamic banks mushrooming throughout the world, it is important for Islamic financial institutions to offer banking products that are as competitive as the conventional products offered by other retail banks, without sacrificing its spirit. Developing new products can indeed be an arduous process, especially since Shariah scholars may make decisions without giving much explanation to the company attempting to issue a Shariah-compliant instrument.

The outcome in mind is the production of Halal food, which is safe, hygienic, of high quality and trustworthy. Individually, each adds value, and together they form a whole and greater than the sum of its parts. The objective of Halal parks is to improve the economic performance of the participating companies while minimising their environmental impact.

A Halal park is a community of manufacturing and service business located on a common property. In essence, it is a centre of infrastructure excellence, and has been regarded as one of the building blocks of the Halal industry. In addition to high quality infrastructure, it also houses a wide array of hygienic facilities and uses an integrated approach to maintaining standards.

Tenants in the park seek enhanced environmental, economic and social performance through collaboration in managing Halal products and resources. By working together, Halal businesses seek a collective benefit available to them on the Halal park premises. The real innovation in creating Halal parks is the bringing together of ideas, concepts and practic-.

It is also a mark of excellence for a Halal park to produce Halal products that are of the highest quality, integrity and safe consumption. For HDC designated Halal park operators, incentives provided include full income tax exemption for 10 years or per cent income tax exemp-. For Halal industry players operating within the designated Halal parks, a similar per cent income tax exemption of 10 years and exemption on export sales for five years is to be granted.

Exemption on import duty and sales tax on raw materials used for the development and production of Halal promoted products also applies. To promote total Halal supply chain, the incentives are also broaden to include Halal logistics operators, which include full income tax exemption for five years or per cent income tax exemption on capital expenditure for five years, as well as exemptions on import duty and sales tax on equipment, components and machinery used directly in cold room operations.

The Halal Parks embrace the clustering approach whereby the respective anchor players will be supported by SMEs that are co-located in the cluster. Each Park will be managed by a professional park manager to ensure sustainability and ease of doing business for potential investors.

Both Parks will act as downstream processing centres for ECERDC other initiatives such as fisheries, fruit and vegetables crops herbal, meat and poultry and palm oil downstream development activities. The earth preparation and construction of infrastructure of the Parks are currently in progress. The Parks will be ready to receive investors by the first quarter of In terms of budget, how much has the federal and state governments allocated for the development and how much are you looking from investors?

Issace John: ECERDC will enter into a collaboration arrangement with both federal and state agencies to ensure that investors will be wellsupported. The federal government provides funding while the state government provides land for the project development. Since a number of producers are still operating in their own backyard, will the Halal parks have allocations to relocate and upgrade local cottage industry producers?

Issace John: The development of ECER Halal Parks will involve the participation of small, medium and large-scale industries, whereby the business model for the parks proposes a systematic and structured framework for both sites. How will the local universities contribute in the overall development of Halal industry in the East Coast states? To date, a total of companies have benefited from the guidance and consultation provided by UniSZA, particularly in obtaining Halal certifica-.

The university provides guidance and support to individuals, entrepreneurs and companies in ECER in attaining Halal certification from JAKIM, while encouraging participation in the biotechnology and herbal industry. The Regional Centre for Halal Products also conducts ingredients and composition testing, as well as assists with product sampling and packaging to enhance food safety and the quality of Halal products in ECER.

These Halal products consist of both food and non-food items such as cosmetics, nutrition supplement, toiletries, attire and accessories. The concept also emphasises on the traceability of the production source and material, as well as the processes involved throughout the entire supply chain from livestock to processing, hygiene and handling. Local producers must know that Halal products are safe and hygienic for consumption by everyone. Together with the Park Managers, ECERDC will also conduct networking and marketing exercises aimed at increasing the visibility and provide market presence for the park and its players, including the SMEs.

Since the Malaysian East Coast is steep in Islamic roots and history, are there any plans. Demand is also high for Halal-certified logistics which include warehousing facilities where halal cargo is stored at dedicated floors and cold rooms. The development of the sector is boosted with the Kuantan Port City KPC initiative which has the potential to transform Kuantan port into a major port and key gateway for Asia Pacific trade. To ensure the sustainability of SMEs, ECER has fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to reward investors that make their base in the region.

A detailed cluster analysis on the Malaysian Halal industry confirmed that there are strong foundations present in Malaysia to become a global Halal hub. The availability of Halal parks in strategic locations throughout Malaysia provides the real infrastructure dedicated solely for Halal related activities.

The following are the four largest Halal parks that bear the special HALMAS accreditation, signifying that they have complied with the strict requirements set under the HDC designated Halal park development guidelines. The development consists of 50 acres of industrial land and 72 units of ready-built light in-.

The open industrial land activities focused on several business activities, including palm oil industry cluster, meat and poultry, food manufacturing and non food such as pharmaceutical, healthcare products, cosmetics and toiletries. Tanjung Manis Halal Hub With 77, hectares in size, the Tanjung Manis Halal Hub in Sarawak, East Malaysia is the largest Halal park project in the world for upstream and downstream production of Halal food, manufacturing activities, lifestyle, tourism and green development.

It offers investors tremendous potential and opportunity to capture growing demand for Halal products from both Muslim and non Muslim markets globally. The Tanjung Manis Halal Hub is strategically located on the west coast of Sarawak and its master plan is based on sustainable development model with emphasis on green development, Halal, environmentally-friendly and wholly organic. Other key advantage is its fast-track approval under its One Stop Centre for certification and endorsement, allowing smooth establishment of operations and reduced waiting period, ensuring a hassle-free procedure in dealing with approving agencies.

Pemikiran akliah dengan sechara mendalam, dengan menitik-beratkan unsur2 tatatertib lojika dan rasionalismanya, tiada ternampak sebagai umum digemari p. The Malay-Indonesian society tends to be more artistic than philosophic: they were not truly capable of embracing Hindu metaphysics, or purposely and because of their own innateness, ignored philosophy and demanded something which was less complicated and less tangled in order to suit their mental states.

Philosophy was altered and replaced by arts, and as such the rational and academic elements were sacrificed. In depth rational thinking, which stresses on the elements of logical disciplines and rationalism, did not seem to be favoured generally. The name of Syed Muhammad Naguib al-Attas was also always mentioned as a leading scholar for being able to prove that Islamic thinkers like Hamzah Fansuri and Hamka were two great Malay logical thinkers, as compared to those who wrote prior to the arrival of Islam See Mohamad Radzi Mustafa Melalui teologi Islam pula orang Melayu diperkenalkan dengan kaedah-kaedah logika dan hukum-hukum akal seperti wajib, mustahil dan harus.

Dengan mempelajari kaedah-kaedah logika seperti yang dibahas mengenai sifat-sifat Tuhan orang Melayu secara tidak langsung berkenalan dengan kaedah logika Yunani, khususnya logika Aristotle yang banyak digunakan di dalam kaedah logika Islam. Through Islamic theology, the Malays were introduced to logical methods and rules of thought like wajib must , mustahil impossible and harus should. By learning those logical methods, i. Shafie Abu Bakar had tried to analyse as a whole the development of the Malay language and literature in order to see how far the emergence of Malay philosophical thinking in the Malay world was.

Elements of philosophical ideas he discussed include nature, human beings, ethics, aesthetics, logic and metaphysics. He divided his brief analysis into four different periods: a pre-Hindu-Buddhist period, b period of Hindu-Buddhist influence, c period of Islam and d modern period. He later concluded that Kedatangan pengaruh Hindu- Buddha terutamanya membawa falsafah inkarnasi penjelmaan. Dengannya gambaran tentang alam, insan lari dari realiti kepada fantasi-dongeng dan bertentangan dengan logika serta rasional, sebaliknya ia lebih bersifat estetika Manakala Islam membawa keyakinan tentang alam nyata dan metafizik berfalsafah tauhid.

Ia bersifat pengisian dalaman dan luaran; Pengaruh moden pula kelihatan lebih membawa kesan kepada yang bersifat luaran Shafie Abu Bakar , With it, the description of nature, human beings ran away from reality to myth-fantasy and contrasted with logic and rationality, on the contrary, it was more esthetical Whereas Islam brought confidence about reality and metaphysical tauhid.

It was characterised by internal and external fulfilment Conversely, the modern influence seemed to be bringing effects that are more external in nature emphasis added. Shafie is right that most of the terminologies related with the mind were influenced by Islam, but to claim from such argument that it was the Islamic influence that brought forward the emergence of logical tradition among the Malays seems to be a rather hasty conclusion. Another scholar which tried to relate the emergence of logical thought to the arrival of Islam is Mat Rofa Ismail , , who concluded that: Mantik, dituntut sebagai ilmu pengantar kepada seluruh ilmu.

Mantic is claimed to be the medium to all knowledge. Moreover, he was only referring to academic treatises on mantic and certain thinkers, and not that of the Malay folks. The understanding of logical thinking among Malays should be widened as a package, to include not only their formal aspect of rationality, but also their informal aspect or rhetorical strategy e.

In a one-page article, Mustafa Hj. Mustafa might be right to a certain extent, but he should not forget that there were also other non-Islamic traditions existing prior to the arrival of Islam, which might have also exerted their influences. As we scrutinise the proverbs cited by him, it can easily be noticed that it is difficult to differentiate between what is universal and what is Islamic.

Take his example hendak seribu daya, tak hendak seribu dalih. A Malay reader who knows either English or German would easily come to the following conclusion for its equivalent, e. Based on the uncertainties of the relationship between logic and culture, this research is therefore interesting and significant here, even in Malay studies, despite certain problems and philosophical disputes, to surf into the mind of the Malays in search of an understanding of their ways of reasoning and emotion.

Based on the platform laid down by them, which claimed that proverbs of Anglo-American culture do indeed illustrate a significant number of logical principles, this study will try to find out whether it is possible as well for Malay proverbs and their culture to reflect on a fairly elaborate logical system See also Lim If there is a certain kind of folk logic, which is equivalent to a logic textbook, then I hypothesise that this logical system and the Malay mind should also reflect at least the following: 1 an implicit typology of legitimate reasoning; 2 rules to guide correct inference with proper pattern ; and 3 caution against specific fallacies as being proven by them for the Anglo-American culture.

Is emotion directly opposed to rationality in their tradition? What are the similarities and differences between the Malay ways of argumentation and that of the Western tradition if we compare them from the perspectives of rhetoric, dialectic and logic? The findings of all the above questions will, I hope, enable us to finally arrive at the conclusion that the Malays did possess a clear logical framework in their proverbial thinking as logic is something rather universal, and the claim that logical thinking exists only after the arrival of Islam as did some of the scholars above, for example, is unconvincing.

What is lacking in the Malay world is not the logical aspect of their mind but, as I have argued, the dialectical dimension See Chapter 6. It is very unfair to claim that logical thought exists only after the arrival of Islam, which implies that Malays were not logical before Islam.

Similarly, it is also rather unfair for us to claim that logical thought was introduced through Western influences, just because the Malay proverbs share the same logical patterns and argument types with the Anglo-American proverbs see Chapter 4.

Both claims, to me, sound like an effort to reduce the dignity and universality of human thinking into some kind of Islamic or Western propaganda. I am more in favour of the general arguments that logical thought is something universal. Since all human beings are basically rational, the Malays as part of the human community are sure to possess some kind of universality in their thinking patterns e. Its pioneering nature, however, underlines its significance.

Secondly, too little attention is given to the study of the Malay mind as a whole despite its great important. Even though it is important to look at the collective mind of the Malays, the literature available so far reveal a rather individualistic approach or hero-centricity as more attention is given to a certain individual be it politician or non-politician in various publication of biographical writings.

Even if there were efforts to look into the mind of the Malay folk as a collective entity, the focus was overly genre-biased. The study on the Malay mind, for example, is dominated solely by the Malay quatrain, pantun. The study on Malay proverbs has been very much suppressed and neglected. It is not the philosophy of any single individual thinker e.

Hamzah Fansuri that I am going to discuss but the philosophy of the Malay folks and their budi, which attracted my attention. Thirdly, this research will try to peer at the differences between the so-called Western rhetorical conceptions of argumentation as compared with the Malay ways of argumentation.

Since the study of argumentation has become more international and global, such an investigation could potentially yield logical categories of the Malay mind and which at last can be used to facilitate cross-cultural study of proverbs bearing on attitudes toward the rational process in general within the language of different communities.

As such, this research can also perhaps be recognised as making inroads into the philosophy of the Malay mind and cultural studies as a whole. Hample has suggested a third kind, argument0, which represents the cognitive processing which is necessary for the production of either argument1 or argument2 cited in Hample , As we know, there are various ways how people resolve disagreement: through rationality, emotion, war etc. German words like Angst23 and Schadenfreude will not easily find an accurate translation in English either.

Mind, in the Western tradition, is the complexity of faculties involved in perceiving, remembering, considering, evaluating and deciding. Mind is in some sense reflected in such occurrences: sensations, perceptions, emotions, memory, desires, various types of reasoning, motives, choices, traits of personality, and the unconscious The New Encyclopaedia Britannica , Vol.

In order to understand the Malay mind, Urusetia Panel Anugerah Sastera Negara gives a very useful suggestion: Konsep minda ini adalah sesuatu yang masih baru dan kompleks serta longgar. Untuk meringkaskan pembicaraan boleh dirangkumi semua proses yang dinamik dalam istilah-istilah yang difahamkan secara biasa seperti: alam fikiran, hati, rasa, akal budi bagi mentakrif minda Melayu.

Dalam masyarakat Melayu traditional yang mengutamakan perasaan kekitaan, sikap dan pandangan bersama, pembicaraan tentang minda kolektif collective mind menjadi lebih relevan kepada kita Urusetia Panel Anugerah Sastera Negara , This concept of the mind is something new, complex and loose. To make discussion brief, it can include all dynamic processes in commonly understood terminology like alam fikiran the realm of thought , hati literally liver , rasa taste , akal budi thought or common sense to define the Malay mind.

In traditional Malay society which stressed on the importance of collective feelings, attitudes and views, the discussion on the collective mind become more relevant to us. In the context of this research, the concept of mind will be derived from this understanding, which tends to combine the element of thinking and the element of emotion. Proverbs24 There are positive and negative attitudes in seeing how proverbs can be defined.

Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial. Milner ; Barley ; Dundes , to try to go for a structural linguistic approach. This means that proverbs must have at least two words. Peribahasa was regarded as the same as pepatah or bidal by Husny According to him, pepatah, peribahasa or bidal carries the meaning of: Kesimpulan sesuatu jang dinjatakan dengan padat dan singkat, jang kadang2 merupakan sebuah pantun, kadang2 hanja merupakan dua baris kalimat dan malahan ada pula jang hanja dilukiskan dalam satu kalimat pendek sadja p.

A conclusion which is compactly and pithily stated, sometimes in the form of a pantun quatrain , sometimes consisting only of two sentences and some even being drawn in only a very short sentence. Simpulan bahasa is even shorter. Perkataan-perkataan pinjaman jarang-jarang menerbitkan simpulan bahasa, iaitu hanya mana yang sudah mesra jadi seperti perkataan Melayu betul sahaja p. Borrowed words seldom produce simpulan bahasa, only those which have become intimate just like the true Malay words.

In the Malay context, even though there are very few, a single statement or sentence can sometimes be contracted into a single word. There is also another proverb which is presented only in a single word, terijuk, which means frustrated or feels ashamed. Terijuk is regarded as a proverb with Minangkabau origin and is cited in Peribahasa Pamuntjak, Iskandar and Madjoindo , , later will be cited as PB only and Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia , , the most authoritative dictionary of the Indonesian language.

Another single-word proverb as collected in MBRAS 49 is lembap, which means moist, but not very wet. By metaphor, the word is used for idleness in a worker. In this context of research, my definition and scope of peribahasa are used as a generic term in a broader perspective to include bidalan, pepatah, perumpamaan, perbilangan, simpulan bahasa and other forms of proverbial sayings.

Early research has tended to be historical in emphasis, which tried to locate the possible places and times of origin of individual proverbs See several articles of Archer Taylor and Wolfgang Mieder According to Taylor c : The study of proverbs deals with: the bibliography of proverbs and proverb collections; the assemblage of new materials and the availability of old sources; the origin, history, influence, reliability, and the value of collections; the history of individual proverbs with the interpretation and the evaluation of their changing forms; the rise and use of proverbial types and formulae including proverbial phrases; Wellerisms; proverbial comparisons; the translation of proverbs from one language into another; literary conventions in the use of proverbs; etc.

Such interests as in the origin, history, collection, translation, etc. Nonetheless, in the second half of the twentieth century, there was a shift away from purely literary and historical studies of proverbs, as a result of the influence of the social sciences. One of the problems which had plagued paremiologists is that of definition. Shirley L. While Dundes believes that proverbs may best be defined in structural terms as purely functional definitions are inadequate considering that other genres of folklore may share the same function s as proverbs.

Another attempt to understand proverb definition was by Mieder b. Based on his judgement, Mieder argues that there obviously exists a considerable difference between scholarly definition attempts and the common view of the proverbs held by the folk. To Mieder, it was rather surprising that such nouns as meaning, message, comment, occurrence, paradigm, form rhyme, alliteration, etc. The problem of contradictory proverbs is one of the important concerns among paremiologists.

Many scholars have dealt with this supposed contradiction of proverbs from philosophical, linguistic and logical points of view especially formal deductive logic. Indeed, it was as early as in the seventeenth century when Nicholas Breton drew attention to or alluded to the issue of conflicting proverbs, or proverbs advocating opposing philosophies.

Yankah31 , said that among those works from various traditions that discussed about it were Firth , from Maori proverbs , Andrzejewski , from Somali proverbs , Jabo proverbs from the work of Herzog , English proverbs Taylor , proverbs in Chinese Lister and Yoruba proverbs Lindfors and Owomoyela According to Yankah, when one deals with proverbs only as a concept of a cultural fact or truism, contradictions are easily found in any proverb tradition.

Yankah is right that proverbs should be treated in their proper social context. Furthermore, they should be treated in the proper perspective. The particular proverb is in itself contradictory: it is good for the bird to be early but not for the worm, as in this case the bird will be the winner but the worm will be the loser. Therefore, is it good to be early? Perhaps this might only be a sophistic trick.

The proverb is a lexical element in the sense that it is a syntactic string which is learned and reused as a single unit with a frozen internal and external structure. The study of practical reasoning in proverbs was first conducted by Goodwin and Wenzel , first published The reason why Goodwin and Wenzel did not try to differentiate between rhetoric and informal logic might have been due to the fact that the informal logic movement only emerged some time after this article was published.

Wenzel was later prompted to think of proverbs again as potential sources of insight into the logics of different communities by analysing the African proverbs. Besides capturing the interest of paremiologists, current research also show some forms of empirical tendencies through the involvement of psychologists and cognitive scientists.

Psychologists and psychiatrists have long been interested in proverbs for testing intelligence, attitudes, aptitudes, and various mental illnesses. Other proverb tests apparently serve as diagnostic tools in the identification of possible schizophrenics. Donald R. Gorham 35, for instance, has developed a tool for diagnosing schizophrenia, since this illness has been known to result in difficulty in understanding metaphors of proverbs.

This test is now best known as the Gorham Proverbs Test. Works by Honeck, for example, represent the interest in that direction See Honeck and Hoffman , Honeck et al. Let us now concentrate on the Malay proverb scholarship and collections to see how Malay proverbs were being treated and if such treatment were adequate. Even though there are more than million Malay speakers today, their proverbs have not really attracted international attention.

The current research on Malay paremiology can be said to have declined today to an alarming state. Among Malay folklore, the study of Malay proverbs today is only peripheral to other literary studies. This is very unfortunate indeed. The use of such aphorisms in everyday discourse has been generally declining. A survey of Malay writing over the past half century reveals a similar trend.

The publications of numerous collections of such sayings in the recent past particularly in the fifties does not belie this trend; it rather confirms it, and serves as another example of the undermining of the old medium by the new: there is a certain irony in the fact that these sayings, mnemonically patterned for easy retrieval in an oral society where they function as repositories of knowledge, are made available as itemized, alphabetically arranged!

Having been removed from the arena of everyday life, they have then been consigned to the fate of a lingering death in the schoolroom, where generations of schoolchildren are subjected to studying them as texts which will have little practical use Sweeney , ;! In this compendium, no literary Malay proverb studies were included.

Even his most authoritative three-volume International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography , and a , which contains more than 4, entries of interpretative scholarship not including proverb collections listed only limited titles37 on Malay proverb scholarship.

His comprehensive bibliographies did not cite any work on Malay proverbs. This leads one to conclude that either no serious work on Malay proverbs is currently published or Malay proverbs have never been put onto the international map of paremiology. Discussion on Malay proverbs in Proverbium can only be found, e.

Paczolay cited three Malay proverb collections in his comparison, i. Hamilton , Atan and Izhab ? Teeuw , provided a small section of review on Malay proverbs, but he only touched on collections of Malay proverbs without any review on Malay interpretative proverb scholarship. My discussion will be divided into three sub-sections: a The bibliographies, sources, history and collection of Malay proverbs; b Malay proverbs studies and analyses; and c The application of Malay proverbs in writing.

It has always played an important role in attracting the majority of researchers until its other member in the family, peribahasa proverbs can be said to be so pushed into the research periphery or has become a so-called stepbrother in this literary family. When researchers were intending to look into the thinking of the Malays, they were most attracted to the pantun42 and it seems that they were exalting the pantun as representing the Malay mind.

This was so until the eighteenth century. II: in According to Maxwell, the first published collections of Malay proverbs that he knew of was a collection of Malay proverbs, with a preface and notes in the Dutch language, as early as by M. Klinkert, a Dutch gentleman. This was mentioned in the preface of the Malay and French dictionary of Abbe Favre, which was published in wherein he acknowledged his obligations to M.

However, Maxwell had only seen a copy of M. For many proverbs, M. Klinkert acknowledged his indebtedness to the late Mr. After his first part of Malay proverbs were published, part two in Vol. The most influential peribahasa collection was done by W. Shellabear bearing the title Kitab Kiliran Budi in The first work by a local on the collection of peribahasa was by Mohd.

Ariffin — a Malay himself — which appeared in and was first published in Kelantan47 by Pejabat al-Matbaah al Asasiyah as Tikaman Bahasa. This collection was later republished by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka in There were also collections with English comments by Hamilton , first published , Winstedt , earlier edition and Brown , first published Numerous publications appeared after the Second World War.

Several titles can be mentioned: Peribahasa dalam Penggunaan Mohd. Tajuddin Hj. Each volume contains 25 peribahasa perumpamaan, pepatah and simpulan bahasa. There are also proverb collections with illustrations e. The latest interesting proverb collection was compiled, translated and illustrated by Kit Lee For an analysis of Javanese proverbs from the aspects of structure, style, meaning and message, reference can be made to Adi Triyono et al. The list of Malay-Indonesian proverbs can go on without end, but most of these collections do not show very much differences, which are only either compiled alphabetically or thematically.

Malay Proverbs Studies and Analyses The Malay proverb not only plays its role in the scholarly environment or among the writers in the literary circle, but it belongs to the general public — especially during the early times. As part of the verbal arts, peribahasa has become part and parcel of their everyday life.

The observation of Swettenham, however, showed a drastic decline in the Malay conversation, especially in the modern era, at the end of the twentieth century Cf. Sweeney , Sweeney , asserted that the decline in the use of the traditional formulaic expressions began after the introduction of mass education. Taking M. This is done by deliberately creating formulas, in the form of slogans, mottoes, and catchphrases for adoption by the masses Sweeney , Pemuda harapan bangsa, pemudi tiang negara, kebersihan pangkal kesehatan as Sweeney p.

Many Malay proverbs studies however seem to be rather local-based. The interpretative studies on Malay proverbs in the Malaysian context for instance are mostly published in Dewan Bahasa. Since Dewan Bahasa is a journal on Malay language, it is thus understandable why most of the studies on Malay proverbs had been published in this journal see e. Edward Djamaris , Indirawati Hj. Graduation exercises in the local universities are another source of interpretative studies on Malay proverbs.

So far, based on my literature review, a few themes that attracted the most attention are, for example, philosophy and thinking of the Malay Ahmad Ibrahim , Noor Fazidah Mohd. Zahid Even though two graduation exercises can be cited which are supposed to explore the philosophy in the Malay proverbs and helpful in my research area, when we scrutinise them thoroughly and look at their selected references, I am generally quite doubtful that they have a full knowledge of what paremiology is.

Taylor, Dundes, Mieder and many more were being ignored totally. The development of research among the Malay paremiologists is much more education centred in nature — or perhaps literary. The Malay linguists, or Malay proverb scholars, so far gave more attention only to the pragmatic problems in teaching the language generally and the learning of proverbs while none I noticed were seriously involved in the development of theoretical-based studies on Malay paremiology.

Falling into this category, there are, for example, numerous articles in the form of journalistic writing, which touched on various themes pertaining to peribahasa, its meaning and uses See Nik Safiah Karim , a, b and There are quite a number of modern simpulan bahasa i.

Peribahasa should also be reformed in order to make it suitable for modern consumption. There are also some brief comparative works between Malay proverbs and proverbs from other traditions, i. Chinese58 and Philippine See Sahlan Mohd. Saman []. Minangkabau, Java in the Malay world. One of the Malay proverbial icons when it comes to writing in Malay should be Abdul Samad Idris — or normally appearing as A.

Samad Idris — to whom I will give my due credit here. His writings, which mostly appeared in Utusan Malaysia and Mingguan Malaysia,60 two of the mainstream newspapers were quite interesting. As a veteran politician from the current leading party, United Malay National Organisation UMNO , he had on and off raised his ideas and comments on the contemporary issues in Malaysian politics. His skills in citing Malay proverbs in his political argumentative discourse should be encouraged.

On 17th January , I was able to access another article by him See He is also the compiler of one of the collection of Malay proverbs, Buat Baik Berpada-pada Samad Idris dengan Pepatah Method of Study This research is a first scientific and theoretical attempt of using analytical-philosophical perspectives at judging the Malay mind through the repertoire of Malay proverbs. It is analytical in one aspect as thousands of proverbs were scrutinised and analysed, but it is also philosophical from another aspect as I will be deriving my conclusion through argumentation.

It should be noted that all proverbs will be interpretively analysed with the purpose of tracing: 1 What kinds of logical principles are embedded behind all those proverbs, and to match them to a conventional classification of patterns of reasoning or argument; and 2 How emotional and intuitive patterns go into hiding behind those proverbs.

The conception of logic in peribahasa as something in accord with reality was also touched on by Abdullah Jusoh His idea of the meaning of logic is clear. In reality, rain falls down from the sky and not vice-versa. Therefore, the use of a classificatory system is a matter of interpretation; the categories themselves may be construed in different ways, and many arguments and proverbs may be assigned to more than one category. It should be noted philosophically as well that this study attempts to approach the Malay mind as a universal category or the concept of human as a Platonic idea and not Ahmad, Ali etc.

As such, the contextual issue for the individual proverb use by particular individual does not become a matter of importance to me. It is also impossible to treat every single proverb in its real context to be recorded before making a generalisation. In order to give an analytical insight, the procedure of my analysis will be generally guided by a model of study which I have sketched See Figure 1.

This model will lead us to two parts of analysis: Firstly, as I believe that some ways of reasoning about human experience are truly universal, therefore the conclusions of Goodwin and Wenzel , first published for Anglo-American proverbs should also generally be reflected on Malay proverbs that: i there are parallels between what the logic textbooks teach and what the proverbs teach and ii a significant number of logical principles can be obtained. I believe that there is a universal, general notion of logical categories and hypothesise that the Malay folks will basically possess the same logical principles but with different rhetorical-dialectical attitudes, and these can be traced from their culture and peribahasas.

Secondly, since all human beings are generally rational but at the same time full of passion, I believe that it would be quite natural for the Malay folks to locate their sense of passion as well in their proverbs.

In order to guide my discussion and analysis on this part, I will be using Norrick as my platform of analysis see Chapter 5. Taking his idea as a stepping stone, I would further justify my arguments that emotions do play an important part as well in the Malay proverbs. I hypothesise that the two important sources of identifying their passions are pertinent: i Creative and symbolic application of metaphorical animals and plants; and ii Hati as the source of passions.

The purpose of this research is not an ethnographic study of the Malays; it is neither a content analysis64 nor is it to seek for the origin of any single Malay proverb, but rather to address some more general philosophical and conceptual questions on how the Malays approach conflict resolution or resolve disagreement argument, i. In order to justify my hypotheses, I will be deriving my evidences and argumentation from various sources, viz. According to my interpretation, if we ponder and contemplate seriously about this Rational Wing of Argument, we will find out that they are generally quite in line with three integrated aspects of human feelings, viz.

For these three aspects of human feelings, I will call them the Emotional Wing of Argument. How well are these two wings incorporated and submerged into our sub-consciousness? This general form as a product of argument is generally universal as it is a physiological product of our body brain that arises from a certain fundamental bodily experience. Bodily functions of our brain are biologically universal; 2 If we look at argument as a process rhetorical aspect , then it is a matter of culture, where different cultural milieu gives rise to the different rhetorical styles and patterns of effective communication.

Some cultures stress on the direct, clear and plain rhetoric, others might go for veiled criticism; 3 Finally, people argue or solve their problems according to certain procedure argument as procedure , some choose to deal with their problem through direct confrontation e. These procedural aspects of argument are determined by the rules of language of a speaker whether English, Chinese, German, Malay etc.

Language and dialectical dimension of argument are comparatively the same; they go for rules and procedures. Analogically, let us just compare it with a pair of wings of a bird, and let us symbolically take this bird as garuda. Garuda is a type of big, meat-eating eagle-like bird, which was said to have the extraordinary ability to fly but which is already extinct now. Its extinction describes even better the idea of an ideal state.

In order to achieve this ideal state, it will be best if a person could achieve the balance of these two wings, and know which wing to use in order to soar to the right, and which wing to use to soar to the left. How a person resolves his or her conflict will very much depend on how and when he or she should use his or her rationality, when he or she should use his or her emotion and when to create a sense of balance between them. The same logic goes well with garuda as which direction this bird will fly is very much dependent on the movement of its wings.

A person might fail, in the process of heading towards this ideal, but he or she should bear in mind that rationality and emotion should not be treated as contradictory and mutually opposing but complimentary and situational instead. All this while, jentayu grateful has been used by the Malays to symbolise a person who is berbudi or a person who is willing to sacrifice himself or herself for a good cause see e.

Are peribahasas relevant in that sense to represent the logical and rhetorical thought of the Malay folks as demanded by the method outlined above? The answer depends on how we look at peribahasas. It should be understood that peribahasa normally performs at least three different roles in Malay discourses, viz. The rhetorical or argumentative functions of proverbs will become clearer if we look at various pairs of combating or duelling proverbs, which are contradictory on the surface, as some proverbs apply in certain rhetorical situations, whereas others are appropriate for other occasions.

Two heads are better than one; The pen is mightier than the sword vs. Actions speak louder than words; Clothes make a man vs. The squeaky wheel gets the grease and Ignorance is bliss vs. Knowledge is power. At face value, proverbs are seen only to be propositions but in the real context of argumentation, proverbs have always functioned as folk enthymemes66 See Green and Pepicello White , , although did not directly relate the proverb with enthymemes, his idea nonetheless seemed to connote the notion of proverb as enthymemes: Interlocutors comprehend proverb meaning through a process of inference that allows them to link the saying with prior understandings and to fill in unstated propositions.

Even though this is so in much of natural discourse, proverbial sayings tend to be particularly figurative, partial, and indirect [italics added]. It should be understood that besides serving its aesthetic purposes and ethical functions, proverbs also serves their argumentative role as part of traditional communication, often serving to persuade, exhort, or criticise. These roles aesthetic, ethical and argumentative are always intertwined and act as a whole in presenting a general idea of Malay rhetoric.

However, in this research, I will put more attention into their logical function, rhetorical strategy and dialectical criticism rather than their literary beauty or ethical advices. The argumentative role of Malay proverbs is also quite obvious. Kalau ada orang yang membahagi-bahagikan demikian, hanya satu pembahagian yang dibuat-buat sahaja. Bidal dan peribahasa pun dapat juga dipakai untuk mematahkan bicara orang , ; bold added Actually there are no differences between bidalan maxims, guides, metaphors , pepatah, petitih sayings alluding to social customs , tamsil comparison, similes and perumpamaan proverbs.

If anyone tries to classify them into such categories, they are only an artificial division. For example, pepatah sayings originated from the word, pematah, which means to refute other people argument. Maxims and peribahasa proverbs could also be used to refute other people argument. Gazali Dunia seemed to contradict his earlier work, which was written in Pepatah adalah satu kata jang mengandung kias-ibarat utjapan tak langsung, terhadap pihak kedua.

Jang disentuh oleh pepatah, ialah pikiran, perasaan seseorang. Seseorang jang punja perasaan atau pikiran dapat memahami makna pepatah, sekurang- kurangnja dapat mendorong pikiran untuk memahami makna pepatah tersebut , 14; Bold added. Pepatah did not come from the word: patah, which was used to refute to knock down other speeches, no! Pepatah is a word that contains indirect analogical expression against the second party. Bold parts of this quotation with bold parts of the previous quotation.

The first title is chosen because it is the first compilation by a Malay, as most of the previous compilations were done by Western scholars. On the other hand, the second source is preferred as the proverbs involved were in many cases written down for the first time by pioneering British civil servants, such as Hugh Clifford, William Maxwell and inside the dictionary of R.

Wilkinson The third title is selected as it was recognised as the most complete title of Malay peribahasa collection published in Malaysia. The proverbs will also be taken from Malay Sayings Brown , especially for the translation, which will be cited as MS, and then followed by the page. Apart from the translation that comes handy, this collection is chosen as various proverbs from different literary sources, viz.

Hikayat Abdullah, Sejarah Melayu were included. Besides the above mentioned collections, certain selected proverbs are also taken from Mestika Bahasa Mohd. For the references and discussion on simpulan bahasa, Kamus Simpulan Bahasa Abdullah Hussain will be used. All these proverb collections do not claim to be exclusive, but will at least be able to act as a corpus for my investigation in order to see the Malay mind.

According to Hassan Ahmad a, 10 : "Daripada korpus ini kita dapat melihat akal budi Melayu, pandangan hidup mereka, nilai sosial mereka, epistemologi mereka, dan sebagainya From this corpus, we can see the Malay akal budi, their worldview, social values, epistemology, etc. In chapter 2, the author gives a general overview of the Malay worldview, their classification of proverbs and the uses of peribahasa.

Explanation of certain key terminology i. Chapter 5 will touch on the extra-logical elements i. Finally, in the concluding Chapter 6, the findings of this research will be presented with argumentation and will include suggestions of further study. Conclusion From the literature reviewed, it is clear that much work is needed in order to make the Malay proverbs known to the international paremiologists.

It will be rather unfortunate if the Malay proverbs are left unattended when the Malay language is one of the important languages of South East Asian countries with a total of more than million speakers. It is also rather unfortunate for us to ignore the importance of this language, which had been successfully used in carrying out the task of spreading the message of four religions, viz.

More work need to be done to unravel the mind of the Malay through their proverbs. It is perhaps the end of the beginning. With this hope, let us proceed to chapter two to understand the Malay worldview and how this worldview was presented in their proverbs before venturing into the realm of thought and emotions of the Malay folks in the following chapters.

It is hoped that this study will pave the way for further discussions towards a more systematic analysis of the traditional Malay mind, their proverbial logic and their theory of argumentation. For more details on the development of western logic, see Kneale and Kneale To know the whole history of logic, including logic in non-European cultures, see Dumitriu It is actually difficult and problematic to divide the world into East and West or between Oriental and Occidental.

I use the term here in a very conscious manner for the convenience of my discussion. I will explain when confusion occurs. For the discussion on the brief history of Indian philosophical tradition, see Phillips To see the character of logic in India, see Matilal For an in-depth study of the Chinese language and logic, see Halbsmeier and Halbsmeier In Halbsmeier , the author gives a special emphasis on the conceptual history of logical terminology in ancient China and an overview of the development of logical reflection in ancient China in terms of the forms of arguments that were deployed in ancient Chinese texts and their theoretical concerns with logical matters.

In order to have a better understanding on the Chinese mind, see Allinson a, b. See also Hongladarom n. For a discussion on a critical comparison of Indian, Chinese, Islamic and European modes of argument, see Daor Tan Yuquan agrees up to a certain extent that there is a logical tradition in China, but he claims that logical tradition of Moism and School of Names were not dominant as compared with Confucianism and Daoism.

To him, the backwardness of the Chinese in science was due to their lack of logical reasoning application. The studies of pure philosophy in the context of Malay world are hardly obtainable. Efforts that can be mentioned so far are the works of Finngeir Hiorth Jnanasiddhanta, Sutasoma is interesting to be mentioned, but limited to the Hindu-Buddhist philosophy within Javanese-Balinese context and not the indigenous view of the Malays as suggested from their folklore i.

The philosophy of Melanesians, however, is discussed in Mercado Perhaps one work that can be quoted that discussed the Malay language and their thinking is Asmah There is also a general exploration of the Malay thinking trait in their socio-economic and political life to confront the challenges of the twentieth century Mohamad Abu Bakar I have tried to focus on the Malay mind, especially from the perspective of Informal Logic through their peribahasas in Lim , but feel that the discussion should be deeper and requires more insight and contemplation.

It was said that actually through Palembang, Sumatra that the Buddhism mind training programme was spread to Tibet as Atisha, the pioneer of Buddhism in Tibet was previously studying in Sumatra. Even I-Ching had to come over to Sumatra to learn about the teaching of Buddha. Lately, the study of emotion has attracted the interest of philosophers and psychologists.

See e. Calhoun and Solomon In this section, however, I will only look at the use of argument in Chinese philosophy to portray a contrast between the West and the East. However, due to the problem of having no academic references i. For the development of informal logic, see also Johnson and Blair , Blair and Johnson , Johnson and Groarke He criticises the monolithic logical-mathematical intelligence that shapes the western civilisation.

In his Frames of Mind , first published in , he proposes the idea on Multiple Intelligence MI , that there should be at least seven types of intelligence, viz. Later he adds-in another type of intelligence, viz. This term was later popularised by Daniel P. Goleman in his book Emotional Intelligence Bantam Books, He calls the three as successful intelligence. He has also pointed out in Hiorth 6 — see bibliographical details in note 5 that until our century the philosophical elements of Sufism seem to have been the only form of philosophy among the Indonesian Muslims.

For some aspects of Sufism as understood and practised among the Malays, see Syed Naguib al-Attas For an analysis on pure scientific research, focusing on astronomy, geophysics and physics in the Dutch East Indies, viz. Java during the ninetieth and twentieth centuries, see Pyenson According to Mohamad Radzi, even myths and pseudo-scientific are logic and rational in that particular context.

It was only due to the clash of civilisation that certain thinking was considered as unable to explain this nature, and as such it was considered as irrational and unscientific. But one of those possibilities perhaps was due to the Malay sense of hina diri, where languages from the Islamic world or from the West are always considered as more accurate and precise.

This attitude has forced the indigenous words to die. The word tetuang udara, for example, which means radio, is not known at all to most of the youngsters now. It has always been translated into English as courtesy or kindness. This word however is rather ambiguous and represents some kinds of mixture between ethics, feelings and intellect in practice. Are logical thought and critical thinking something universal or culturally biased?

I personally believe that generally we share quite a certain amount of the same logical patterns across cultures, just like we share a rather universal linguistic pattern despite the differences of languages we use. For those who are interested in various arguments on particularity and universality of argument quality, see Siegel and also R. Is critical thinking culturally biased? Teaching Philosophy 21, pp. See Marks and Ames , But it will be unwise and inappropriate to claim that proverb is peribahasa and peribahasa is proverb due to the differences of cultural interpretation on the concept of genre among folklorists within different traditions.

Harnish also attempted to distinguish the differences between idiom, metaphor, saying and proverb. It is normally known as ungkapan in Indonesia and perambahan in Brunei. Sabaruddin includes the Malay idiom simpulan bahasa, kiasan or ungkapan as part of his corpus of Malay proverbs. For more example of one word Malay idiom e.

See supra, note Peribahasa as generic term for bidalan, pepatah, perumpamaan, perbilangan, simpulan bahasa and ungkapan have various responses. Some agree that ungkapan and simpulan bahasa should fall into the same category, but there are others who tend to oppose See Daniel Jebon Janaun , 27; Tan Chin Kwang , 5.

See for example: Taylor a ; Mieder a, b and g. Mieder and Dundes For a discussion on a few examples of contradictory proverbs in German, see Gabriel , See also Gorham, D. A proverbs test for clinical and experimental use. See Psychological Reports, 1: Malay Proverbs. Bidal Melayu. Malay Proverbs with Translations and Explanations. Singapore: Qayam, ; Izhab, Ismail. Malay Proverbs-Sayings and pantuns of Old. With Translations and Explanations in English. Penang: Sinaran Bros, ?

Cited in Paczolay , However, there are exceptions lately. Two articles on proverbs in the Malay-Indonesia world have been published in Proverbium, viz. Fanany and Fanany and Lim Kim Hui The thorough literature review should be up-dated from time to time. Furthermore, even proverbs can be obtained everywhere. Brown , Eenige ophelderingen omtrent de Maleische spreekwoorden en spreekwijzen. BKI 3. And ii Klinkert, H. Vervolg op de Maleische Spreekwoorden benevens eenige Maleische raadsels en kinderspelen.

This new edition includes also simpulan bahasa Brunei, which is normally known as perambahan. This however does not really alter the findings of my analysis as there is also more than hati-related simpulan bahasa in the new collection. For a very brief review of this new edition, see Nursurya Amien Prior to Vol. There were Maxwell a, b, , , Clifford , Vol. Saman for the comparison of Malay-Philippine proverbs. Therefore, my separation of logical principles as the realm of the mind and emotional patterns as the realm of the heart is merely for the purposes of analysis.

However, the overall analysis is tightened by an integrated system. Certain analyses and statistical figures obtained, however, were chosen and analysed conveniently or by purpose in order to pose a trend-cluster for e. However, the choice of garuda or jentayu in this section is only something symbolic and interpretative, which carries no serious substantive understanding.

His disposition is generally kindly, his manners are polite and easy. Never cringing, he is reserved with strangers and suspicious, though he does not show it He is a good talker, speaks in parables, quotes proverbs and wise saws, has a strong sense of humour, and is very fond of a good joke. He takes an interest in the affairs of his neighbours and is consequently a gossip. He is a Muhammadan and a fatalist but he is also very superstitious Swettenham , ; italics added.

Introduction The Malay people are known to be gentle. It was told that even if they engage in a disagreement or they dislike certain ideas, they will choose the most polite diction or proverbial saying in conveying their thoughts so that the hearer would not get hurt. Their language is renowned for its beauty and sweet melody. This seemingly old language, before having its written form, began at one time as nothing but oral tradition.

Yusof Mustafa , v. The other is their quatrains or pantun. Every nation possesses its own collections of proverbs — the Malays being no exception — which have been accumulated over the past centuries and have become their diamonds of thought. Their first appearance in literary form is often an adaptation of an oral saying. The Malay proverbs have always been considered as the work of society and therefore no individual author or sources of texts can be found.

The study of folklore in the twentieth century has brought renewed interest in the proverb as a reflection of folk culture, and Malay proverbs should not be left behind. In this chapter, I would like to discuss the worldview of the Malays and how this worldview had been presented in their proverbs; what functions proverbs play in their early history and in this new millennium; how these proverbial phrases had been categorised — in which styles or forms; and what content that really dominated the Malay thinking behind their peribahasa.

All these differences have, either directly or indirectly, influenced how they perceive the creation of the world, natural phenomena, creation of man, issues on mind and body or the concept of the soul today. It is not that easy to really separate between what is the worldview of the Malays and what kind of influences were introduced by the other traditions. To add salt to the wound of this problem is that their tradition was entirely oral.

Oral traditions easily die out when overwhelmed by colonial conquerors or external influences. In order to reduce the possibility of being influenced, the closer solution will be using the folkloristic approach and examining their early belief.

Winstedt apparently had a very clear-cut idea of the cultural development of the Malay people as expressed in the title of his book: The Malay Magician Being Shaman, Saiva and Sufi Putting aside his concentration on borrowing and adaptation, Winstedt was doing an interesting cultural generalisation.

Nevertheless, the arrival of Western colonisation did play a significant role as well on how the Malays perceive themselves and their surrounding. Servant mentality had pushed the Malays into a state of self-denigration with no confidence, which later altered their mindset and conceptual worldview of rendah diri into hina-diri, after more than years of cultural camouflage.

I will set my discussion and construction of the Malay worldview through my own observation, interpretation and data from their folk tales and folk dramas.

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