The operational amplifier integrator is an electronic integration circuit. Based on the operational amplifier op-ampit performs the mathematical operation of integration with respect to time; that is, its output voltage is proportional to the input voltage integrated over time. The integrator circuit is mostly used in analog computersanalog-to-digital converters and wave-shaping circuits.

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Related Articles. Electric Bill Calculator with Examples. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Check Also. Electrical Wiring Installation. Close Search for. Adblock Detected Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. Therefore, the input impedance of the load and the output impedance of the source determine how the source current and voltage change. If one were to create a circuit with equivalent properties across the input terminals by placing the input impedance across the load of the circuit and the output impedance in series with the signal source, Ohm's law could be used to calculate the transfer function.

The values of the input and output impedance are often used to evaluate the electrical efficiency of networks by breaking them up into multiple stages and evaluating the efficiency of the interaction between each stage independently. In this case,. In AC circuits carrying power , the losses of energy in conductors due to the reactive component of the impedance can be significant.

These losses manifest themselves in a phenomenon called phase imbalance, where the current is out of phase lagging behind or ahead with the voltage. Therefore, the product of the current and the voltage is less than what it would be if the current and voltage were in phase.

With DC sources, reactive circuits have no impact, therefore power factor correction is not necessary. For a circuit to be modelled with an ideal source, output impedance, and input impedance; the circuit's input reactance can be sized to be the negative of the output reactance at the source. In this scenario, the reactive component of the input impedance cancels the reactive component of the output impedance at the source.

The resulting equivalent circuit is purely resistive in nature, and there are no losses due to phase imbalance in the source or the load. The condition of maximum power transfer states that for a given source maximum power will be transferred when the resistance of the source is equal to the resistance of the load and the power factor is corrected by canceling out the reactance. When this occurs the circuit is said to be complex conjugate matched to the signals impedance.

Note this only maximizes the power transfer, not the efficiency of the circuit. This can create standing waves on the transmission line. To minimize reflections, the characteristic impedance of the transmission line and the impedance of the load circuit have to be equal or "matched".

If the impedance matches, the connection is known as a matched connection , and the process of correcting an impedance mismatch is called impedance matching. Since the characteristic impedance for a homogeneous transmission line is based on geometry alone and is therefore constant, and the load impedance can be measured independently, the matching condition holds regardless of the placement of the load before or after the transmission line.

In modern signal processing , devices, such as operational amplifiers , are designed to have an input impedance several orders of magnitude higher than the output impedance of the source device connected to that input. This is called impedance bridging. The losses due to input impedance loss in these circuits will be minimized, and the voltage at the input of the amplifier will be close to voltage as if the amplifier circuit was not connected.

When a device whose input impedance could cause significant degradation of the signal is used, often a device with a high input impedance and a low output impedance is used to minimize its effects.